Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar Biography in 2024: Birth, Death, Early Life & Education

Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar Biography Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar born on April 14, 1891 and passing away on December 6, 1956, was an Indian legal expert, economist, advocate for social change, and political figure. He led the team responsible for formulating the Indian Constitution during the debates of the Constituent Assembly, held the position of Law and Justice minister in Jawaharlal Nehru’s initial cabinet, and motivated the Dalit Buddhist movement following his departure from Hinduism.

Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar Biography

Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar served as the inaugural Law Minister of independent India and is renowned as the architect of the Indian Constitution. He was a multifaceted figure, being a social reformer, economist, political philosopher, rational thinker, writer, orator, and educator. Dr. Ambedkar is celebrated not only by the Dalits but also by all marginalized communities. Regarded as one of the foremost leaders in post-independence India, his life story and accomplishments as a dedicated social reformer are worth exploring.

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Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar Birth

Babasaheb Bhimrao Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, born on April 14, 1891, in Mau, Uttar Pradesh, India, was the fourteenth child in a Maratha family. His father worked as a military school instructor.

Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar Biography Key Facts

Full Name

Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar

Born

14 April 1891

Place of Birth

Mhow, India

Died

6 December 1956

Place of Death

New Delhi, India

Resting place

Chaitya Bhoomi, Mumbai, India

Parents

Father: Ramji Maloji Sakpal

Mother: Bhimabai Sakpal

Spouse(s)

Ramabai Ambedkar (m. 1906; died 1935)

Savita Ambedkar (m. 1948)

Political party

Independent Labour Party

Scheduled Castes Federation

Other political

affiliations

Republican Party of India

Alma mater

University of Mumbai (B.A., M.A.)

Columbia University (M.A., PhD)

London School of Economics (M.Sc., D.Sc.)

Gray’s Inn (Barrister-at-Law)

Profession

Jurist, economist, academic, politician, social reformer, and writer

Awards

    Bharat Ratna

(posthumously in 1990)

Known for or Famous for

Dalit rights movement

Heading committee drafting Constitution of India

Dalit Buddhist movement

Early Life & Education

Bhimrao Ramji was born in a lower caste called “Mahar” and went to school in “Chatara” for education. In the past, he used a separate pot for water and faced challenges at school, feeling left out. Luckily, his Brahmin teacher Mahadeva Ambedkar showed him kindness and love. Because of this, he changed his name to Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar from Bhimrao Chakpal Ambawadekar.

In 1904, after moving to Mumbai with his family, he attended Elphinstone High School for further studies. Despite being poor, he completed school in 1907. Thanks to the King of Baroda’s support, he pursued higher education at the University of Bombay and graduated with a BA in Political Science and Economics in 1912. Additionally, he briefly served as an army chief at the King of Baroda’s palace.

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Travel to the USA for higher Education

With the help of King ‘Shayaji Rao’ of Baroda, he traveled to the United States for studies. Ambedkar pursued economics, politics, philosophy, and sociology at Columbia University, making history as the first Indian to do so. He earned his master’s degree in “The Trade of Ancient India” in 1915. Subsequently, his work on “Indian Profit Share: A Historical Analysis” earned him a degree from Columbia University. In 1921, he received an MA for his research on “Decentralisation of Public Finance in British India,” followed by a DSC in 1923 for his study on “The Problem of the Rupee.” Later, he attained a law degree, known as a “barrister degree.”

Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar Marriage & Children

He was born on April 14, 1891, in Mhow, India. He faced bullying at school due to caste differences. His father, Ramji Maloji Sakpal, was a subedar in the army. His mother was Bhimabai Sakpal from a Marathi background. In 1894, his father retired, and they moved to Satara. Sadly, his mother passed away shortly after. The family then relocated to Mumbai in 1897 for his schooling at Elphinstone High School. He married Ramabai when he was around 15 years old. He passed his matriculation exam in 1907 and joined Elphinstone College the next year. The college was linked with Bombay University. He graduated in economics and political science from Bombay University in 1912.

He got a scholarship from the ruler of Baroda. He studied in the US, UK, and Germany. Initially in public service, he faced discrimination. So, he pursued law and teaching. A leader among Dalits, he started journals for them. He ensured their representation in legislative councils. He authored a book criticizing Congress and Gandhi’s impact on Dalits (1945).

ChildrenSon(s)– Rajratna Ambedkar (Died), Yashwant Ambedkar (from Ramabai Ambedkar)
Daughter– Indu (Died)

Wife

Wife/Spouse

First Wife: Ramabai Ambedkar (m. 1906-1935) (until her dealth)

Second Wife: Savita Ambedkar (m. 1948–1956)

Parents

ParentsFather– Ramji Maloji Sakpal (Army Officer)
Mother– Bhimabai Sakpal

Siblings

SiblingsBrother(s)– Balaram, Anandrao
Sister(s)– Manjula, Tulasi, Gangabai, RamabaiNote: He had total 13 siblings, out of which, only three brothers and 2 sisters survived.

Social Work

Ambedkar came back to India in 1923 and joined the struggle against British rule. He suggested improving economic and social structures to help the disadvantaged. In July 1924, he set up “Bahiskrita Hitakarini Sabha” to uplift the marginalized. By this, he promoted social rights and education for the oppressed. Before heading to London for the Round Table Conference in 1930, he stated, “I will fight for what my people deserve and also support self-government demands.”

The second round table focused on representation. Demands were made for proportional representation and special voting rights for the oppressed. This led to the introduction of the “dual suffrage” system for poorer classes, allowing them one vote for a general candidate and another for a lower-community candidate in the same constituency. Gandhi protested by fasting and rejecting this system. Eventually, on September 24, 1931, Gandhi and Ambedkar signed the “Poona Pact,” which favored distinct constituencies over separate suffrage for lower castes in general elections.

Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar Death

Ambedkar’s health deteriorated in 1955 due to diabetes. On December 6, 1956, Babasaheb Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, a dedicated advocate for the oppressed, passed away in his home in Delhi while sleeping. His body was cremated according to Buddhist customs on the “Dadar Chowpati” beach due to his deep involvement in Buddhism. Posthumously, he was honored with India’s highest award, the Bharat Ratna, in 1990. Born into an oppressed community, the eminent legal scholar Babasaheb Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, who authored India’s constitution, made significant contributions to various fields like economics, politics, history, philosophy, and law, reshaping the narrative of Indian history. As a prominent social activist and an unparalleled leader, he symbolized hope for the marginalized. It is not an exaggeration to say that individuals like him serve as a beacon of inspiration for all.

Ambedkar’s Actions Against Untouchability

In 1927, Ambedkar began the battle against untouchability and injustices faced by the lower class, strongly condemning the caste system and the atrocities stemming from Varna Shirama Dharma. He achieved success in the 1930 demonstration against Nashik Temple’s entry restrictions. Recognizing untouchability as both a political and social problem, he advocated for the Abolition of Untouchability Act. Finally, in 1956, he converted to Buddhism.

Ambedkar’s contribution to India’s independent political system

After India gained independence on August 15, 1947, Ambedkar was asked by the Congress government to become the Law Minister. Consequently, he was appointed as the President of the Indian Constituent Assembly and the nation’s inaugural Law Minister post-independence. Ambedkar, who headed the Indian Constitution Drafting Committee, submitted the proposal to Parliament on November 26, 1949. Apart from safeguarding individuals’ rights in various aspects, Ambedkar’s political framework has been commended by historians as the “most significant social manuscript.” Nonetheless, he stepped down from his role in 1951 due to disagreements with Nehru regarding the enactment of this law.

Obsession with Buddhism

Upon recognizing that Hinduism posed a major obstacle in his social activism, he turned to Buddhist principles. From 1950 onwards, he realized that Hinduism was hindering his social efforts, prompting him to adopt Buddhist beliefs. He participated in the World Buddhist Religious Conferences and the Buddhist Monks Seminar in Sri Lanka. In 1955, he founded the “Bharatiya Buddhist Mahasabha.” The book “Buddha and His Dhamma” was authored by him in 1956. Finally, on October 14, 1956, he renounced all other faiths to embrace Buddhism.

Political Career

Dr. B.R. Ambedkar became the head of Government Law College, Bombay in 1935 for two years. Later, he led Ramjas College at Delhi University. After its founder passed away, he declared his plan to change religion at a conference in Nasik. He urged his supporters to move away from Hinduism. In 1936, he created the Independent Labour Party and ran in the Bombay election the following year. The party won 11 reserved seats and 3 general seats in the Central Legislative Assembly. Ambedkar wrote The Annihilation of Caste published on May 15, 1936. He also fought against the Khoti system in Konkan area that exploited farmers by revenue collectors called “khots.” In the Bombay Legislative Assembly, Ambedkar introduced a bill in 1937 to end the khoti system and establish direct ties between government and farmers.

As a labor minister, he was on committees and councils. In 1940, after a significant political event, he wrote a detailed analysis. His work focused on explaining the origin of a particular social group. His political party’s performance was disappointing in a crucial election. Later, he became a part of different political assemblies. In 1952, he ran for elections but did not win. He then became a member of another legislative body. He tried to re-enter another legislative body but was unsuccessful. Unfortunately, he passed away before another election took place.

Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar Images

Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar Biography

Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar images

Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar

Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar Biography

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